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William Robinson 5 July — 17 May was an Irish practical gardener and journalist whose ideas about wild gardening spurred the movement that led to the popularising of the English cottage gardena parallel to the search for honest simplicity and vernacular style of the British Arts and Crafts movement.
Robinson advocated more natural and less formal-looking plantings of hardy perennialsshrubsand climbersand reacted against the High Victorian patterned gardening, which used tropical materials grown in greenhouses. He railed against standard rosesstatuary, sham Italian gardens, and other artifices common in gardening at the time.
Modern gardening practices first introduced by Robinson include: using alpine plants in rock gardens ; dense plantings of perennials and groundcovers that expose no bare soil; use of hardy perennials and native plants; and large plantings of perennials in natural-looking drifts.
Robinson began his garden work at an early age, as a garden boy for the Marquess of Waterford at Curraghmore, County Waterford. According to one account, as the result of a bitter quarrel, one cold winter night in he let the Wild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden go out, killing many valuable plants. Other accounts consider the story to be a gross exaggeration. At that time, the Royal Horticultural Society 's Kensington gardens were being designed and planted with vast numbers of greenhouse flowers in mass plantings.
Robinson wrote that "it was not easy to get away from all this false and hideous "art". Inat the age of 29, he became a fellow of the Linnean Society under the sponsorship of Charles DarwinJames VeitchDavid Moore, and seven other distinguished botanists and horticulturists.
His most influential books were The Wild Gardenwhich made his reputation and allowed him to start his magazine The Garden ; and The English Flower Garden,which he revised in edition after edition and included contributions from his lifelong friend Gertrude Jekyllamong others.
She later edited The Garden for a couple of years and contributed many articles to his publications, which also included Gardening Illustrated from He first met Jekyll in —they were in accord in their design principles and maintained a close friendship and professional association for over 50 years. He helped her on her garden at Munstead Wood ; she provided plants for his garden at Gravetye Manor. Jekyll wrote about Robinson that:. It is mainly owing to his unremitting labours that a clear knowledge of the world of hardy-plant beauty is now placed within easy reach of all who care to acquire it, and that the "bedding mania" is virtually dead.
Robinson also published God's Acre Beautiful or The Cemeteries of The Futurein which he applied his gardening aesthetic to urban churchyards and cemeteries. His campaign included trying to win an unwilling public to the advantages of cremation over burial, and he quite freely shared unsavoury stories of what happened in certain crowded graveyards. With his writing career a financial success, in Robinson was able to purchase the Elizabethan Manor of Gravetye near East Grinstead in Sussex, along with about acres 0.
Much of the estate had been managed as a coppiced woodlandgiving Robinson the opportunity to plant drifts of scillacyclamenand narcissus between the coppiced hazels and chestnuts. On the edges, and in the cleared spaces in the woods, Robinson established plantings of Japanese anemonelilyacanthusand pampas grassalong with shrubs such as fothergillastewartiaand nyssa. Closer to the house he had some flower beds; throughout he planted red valerianwhich he allowed to spread naturally around paving and staircases.
Other features included an oval-shaped walled kitchen garden, a heather garden, and a water garden with one of the largest collections of water lilies in Europe. Robinson invited several well-known painters to portray his own landscape artistry, including the English Wild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden Beatrice Parsons, the landscape and botanical painter Henry Moonand Alfred Parsons.
Moon and Parsons illustrated many of Robinson's works. After Robinson's death, Gravetye Manor was left to Wild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden Forestry Commissionwho left it derelict for many years. In it was leased to a restaurateur who refurbished the gardens, replacing some of the flower beds with lawn.
Through his magazines and books, Robinson challenged many gardening traditions and introduced new ideas that have become commonplace today. He is most linked with introducing the herbaceous borderwhich he referred to by the older name of 'mixed Between Clouds - Frank Quasar - Atmos included a mixture of shrubs, hardy and half-hardy herbaceous plants. He also advocated dense plantings that left no bare soil, with the spaces between taller plants filled with what are now commonly called ground cover plants.
Even his rose garden at Gravetye was filled with saxifrage between and under the roses. Following a visit to the AlpsRobinson wrote Alpine Flowers for Gardenswhich for the first time showed how to use alpine plants in a designed rock garden. His most significant influence was the introduction of the idea of wild gardening, which first appeared in The Wild Garden and was further developed in The English Flower Garden.
The idea of introducing large drifts of native hardy perennial plants Wild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden meadow, woodand, and waterside is taken for granted today, but was revolutionary in Robinson's time.
In the first edition, he happily used any plant that could be naturalised, including half-hardy perennials and natives from other parts of the world—thus Robinson's wild garden was not limited to locally native species. Robinson's own garden at Gravetye Stuntin Or Ballin - ESG* - Family Business 2 planted on a large scale, but his wild garden idea could be realised in small yards, where the 'garden' is designed to appear to merge into the surrounding woodland or meadow.
Robinson's ideas continue to influence gardeners and landscape architects today—from home and cottage gardens to large estate and public gardens. In The Wild Garden    Robinson set forth fresh gardening principles that expanded the idea of garden and introduced themes and techniques that are taken for granted today, notably that of "naturalised" plantings. Robinson's audience were not the owners of intensely gardened suburban plots, nor dwellers in gentrified country cottages seeking a nostalgic atmosphere; nor was Robinson concerned with the immediate surroundings of the English country house.
The hardy plants Robinson endorsed were not Another World (Another Radio Edit) - Prophecy - Another World / The Eyes natives by any means: two chapters are devoted to the hardy plants from other temperate climate zones that were appropriate to naturalising schemes.
The narcissus he preferred were the small, delicate ones from the Iberian peninsula. Meadowflowers included goldenrod and asters, rampant spreaders from North America long familiar in English gardens. Nor did Robinson's 'wild' approach refer to letting gardens return to their natural state—he taught a specific gardening method and aesthetic.
The nature of plants' habit of growth and their cultural preferences  dictated the free Vanessa - The Warriors - A Cross To Bear, in which human intervention was Wild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden be kept undetectable.
Without being in any sense retrograde, Robinson's book brought attention back to the plants, which had been eclipsed since the decline of " gardenesque " plantings One - DJ Cip One - Trifecta - Underground Exclusives the s and 30s, during the use of tender annuals as massed color in Daggar - Muslimgauze - Syrinjia schemes of the mid-century.
The book's popularity was largely due to Robinson's promise that wild gardening could be easy and beautiful; that the use of hardy perennials would be less expensive and offer more variety than the frequent mass planting of greenhouse annuals; and that it followed nature, which he considered the source of all true design.
In The English Flower GardenRobinson laid down the principles that revolutionised the art of gardening. Robinson's source of inspiration was the simple cottage gardenWild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden neglected by the fashionable landscapists. In The English Flower Garden he rejected the artificial and the formal, specifically statuary, topiarycarpet beddingand waterworks—comparing the modern garden to "the lifeless formality of wall-paper or carpet.
The gardener must follow the true artist, however modestly, in his respect for things as they are, in delight in natural form and beauty of flower and tree, if we are to be free from barren geometry, and if our gardens are ever to be true pictures And as the artist's work is to see for us and preserve in pictures some of the beauty of landscape, tree, or flower, so the gardener's should be to keep for us as far as may be, in the fulness of their natural beauty, the living things themselves.
The first part of The English Flower Garden covered garden design, emphasising an approach that was individual and not stereotypical: "the best kind of garden grows out of the situation, as the primrose grows out of a cool bank. This book was first published inwith the last and definitive edition published in During Robinson's lifetime, the book found increasing popularity, with fifteen editions during his life.
For fifty years, The English Flower Garden was considered a bible by many gardeners. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. William Robinson. The standard author abbreviation Rob. An illustrated weekly journal of horticulture in all its branches".
Retrieved 23 August The Wild Garden. London: J. Robinson, 4th edition, January Categories : births deaths Fellows of the Linnean Society of London English landscape and garden designers Crazy (Original Mix Edit) - Brooklyn Bounce - BB-Styles (Box Set) gardeners Irish gardeners Irish garden writers Arts and Crafts Wild Garden - Lions & Ghosts - Wild Garden artists.
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