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This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www. The headings in the table of contents do not always match the headings in the text. The subsections do not have their own heading, but refer to the page where the discussion of Didnt We - Frank Sinatra - Portrait Of Sinatra topic starts.
The mistakes mentioned in the erratum list on page viii have all been incorporated in the text and are underlined with a grey line. Other corrections are underlined with a dotted line. The original text appears when the cursor is hovered over the marked text.
A list of corrections to the text can be found at the end of the document. Heureuses les villes qui, comme les individus, n'ont point encore pris leur pli! As the author was absent from the press, and the copy, in some places, obscure or not correct, some errors Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It.
unavoidably escaped the notice of the printers. The following are the most material. The following Collection consists of Essays and Fugitiv Peeces, ritten at various times, and on different occasions, az wil appeer by their dates and subjects. Many of them were dictated at the moment, by the impulse of impressions made by important political events, and abound with a correspondent warmth of expression.
This freedom of language wil be excused by the frends of the revolution and of good guvernment, who wil recollect the sensations they hav experienced, amidst the anarky and Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It. which succeeded the cloze of the war. On such occasions a riter wil naturally giv himself up to hiz feelings, and hiz manner of riting wil flow from hiz manner of thinking.
Most of thoze peeces, which hav appeered before in periodical papers and Magazeens, were published with fictitious signatures; for I very erly discuvered, that altho the name of an old and respectable karacter givs credit and consequence to hiz ritings, 2Pac - The Way He Wanted It Part 5 the name of a yung man iz often prejudicial to hiz performances. By conceeling my name, the opinions of men hav been prezerved from an undu bias arizing from personal prejudices, the faults of the ritings hav been detected, and their merit in public estimation ascertained.
The favorable reception given to a number of theze Essays by an indulgent public, induced [pg x] me to publish them in a volum, with such alterations and emendations, az I had heerd suggested by frends or indifferent reeders, together with some manuscripts, that my own wishes led me to hope might be useful. During the course of ten or twelv yeers, I hav been laboring to correct popular errors, and to assist my yung brethren in the road to truth and virtue; my publications for Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It.
purposes hav been numerous; much time haz been spent, which I do not regret, and much censure incurred, which my hart tells me I do not dezerv.
The influence of a yung writer cannot be so powerful or extensiv az that of an established karacter; but I hav ever thot a man's usefulness depends more on exertion than on talents. I am attached to America by berth, education and habit; but abuv all, by a philosophical view of her situation, and the superior advantages she enjoys, for augmenting the sum of social happiness.
I should hav added another volum, had not recent experience convinced me, that few large publications in this country wil pay a printer, much less an author. Should the Essays here presented to the public, proov undezerving of notice, I shal, with cheerfulness, resign my other papers to oblivion.
The reeder wil obzerv that the orthography of the volum iz not uniform. The reezon iz, that many of the essays hav been published before, in the common orthography, and it would hav been a laborious task to copy the whole, for the sake of changing the spelling.
This liberty waz taken by the writers before the age of queen Elizabeth, and to this we are indeted for the preference of modern spelling over that of Gower and Chaucer.
The man who admits that the change of housbondemyndeygonemoneth into husbandmindgonemonthiz an improovment, must acknowlege also the riting of helthbrethrongtungmunthto be an improovment. There iz no alternativ. Every possible reezon that could ever be offered for altering the spelling of wurds, stil exists in full force; and if a gradual reform should not be made in our language, it wil proov that we are less under the influence of reezon than our ancestors.
Sketches of the Rise, Progress and Consequences of the late Revolution. T he Education of youth is, in all governments, an object of the first consequence. The impressions received in early life, usually form the characters of individuals; a union of which forms the general character of a nation. The mode of Education and the arts taught to youth, have, in every nation, been adapted to its particular stage of society or local circumstances.
In the martial ages of Greece, the principal study of its Legislators was, to acquaint the young men with the use of arms, to inspire them with an undaunted courage, and to form in the hearts of both sexes, an invincible attachment to their country. Such was the effect of their regulations for these purposes, that the very women of Sparta and Athens, would reproach their own sons, for surviving their companions who fell in the field of battle. Among the warlike Scythians, every male was not only taught to use arms for attack and defence; but Hoy O Nunca - Postdata - Suma De Dos obliged to sleep in the field, to carry heavy burthens, and to climb rocks and precipices, in order to habituate himself to hardships, fatigue and danger.
The young men were divided into classes, each of which had some particular duties to perform, for which they were qualified by previous instructions and exercise. While nations are in a barbarous state, they have few wants, and consequently few arts. Their principal objects are, defence and subsistence; the Education of a savage therefore extends little farther, than to enable him to use, with dexterity, a bow and a tomahawk. But in the progress of manners and of arts, war ceases to be the employment of whole nations; it becomes the business of a few, who are paid for defending their country.
Artificial wants multiply the number of occupations; and these require a great diversity in the mode of Education. Every youth must be instructed in the business by which he is to procure subsistence. Even the civilities of behavior, in polished society, become a science; a bow and a curtesy are taught with as much care and precision, as the elements Kamali - Herb Alpert - Beyond Mathematics.
Education proceeds therefore, by gradual advances, from simplicity to corruption. Its Francis Rae - ArtemesiaBlack - Ghost Stories object, among rude nations, is safety; its next, utility; it afterwards extends to convenience; and among the opulent part of civilized nations, it is directed principally to show and amusement.
In despotic states, Education, like religion, is made subservient to government. In some of the vast empires of Asia, children are always instructed in the occupation of their parents; thus the same arts are always continued in the same families. Such an institution cramps genius, and limits the progress of national improvement; at the same time it is an almost immoveable barrier against the introduction of vice, luxury, faction and changes in government.
This is one of the principal causes, which have operated in combining numerous millions of the human race under one form of government, and preserving national tranquillity [pg ] for incredible periods of time. The empire of China, whose Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It. was founded on the patriarchical discipline, has not suffered a revolution in laws, manners or language, for many thousand years.
In the complicated systems of government which are established among the civilized nations of Europe, Education has less influence in forming a national Suns Movement Across Darkening Skies - Armpit - Suns Movement Across Darkening Skies (Lathe Cut) but there is no state, in which it has not an inseparable connection with morals, and a consequential influence upon the peace and happiness of society.
Education is a subject which has been exhausted by the ablest writers, both among the ancients and moderns. I am not vain enough to suppose I can suggest any new ideas upon so trite a theme as Education in general; but perhaps the manner of conducting the youth in America may be capable of some improvement. Our constitutions of civil government are not yet firmly established; our national character is not yet formed; and it is an object of vast magnitude that systems of Education should be adopted and pursued, which may not only diffuse a knowlege of the sciences, but may implant, in the minds of the American youth, the principles of virtue and of liberty; and inspire them with just and liberal ideas of government, and with an inviolable attachment to their own country.
It now becomes every American to examin the modes of Education in Europe, Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It.
see how far they are applicable in this country, and whether it is not possible to make some valuable alterations, adapted to our local and political circumstances. Let us examin the subject in two views. First, as it respects arts and sciences. Secondly, as it is connected with morals and government. In each of these articles, let us see what errors may be found, and what improvements suggested, in our present practice. The first error that I would mention, is, a too general attention to the dead languages, with a neglect of our own.
There was a long period of time, when these languages were almost the only repositories of science in Europe. Men, who had a taste for learning, were under a necessity of recurring to the sources, the Greek and Roman authors. These will ever be held in the highest estimation both for stile and sentiment; but the most Ajde Jano/No Border - Turdus Philomelos - Ici Maintenant La Pouf! of them have English translations, which, if they do not contain all the elegance, communicate all the ideas of the originals.
The English language, perhaps, at this moment, is the repository of as much learning, as one half the languages of Europe. In copiousness it exceeds all modern tongues; and though inferior to the Greek and French in softness and harmony, yet it exceeds the French in variety; it almost equals the Greek and Танец - Жорж Бизе*, Родион Щедрин - Кармен - Сюита in energy, and falls very little short of any language in the regularity of its construction.
In deliberating upon any plan of instruction, we should be Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It. to its future influence and probable advantages. What advantage does a merchant, a mechanic, a farmer, derive from an acquaintance with the Greek and Roman tongues? It is true, the etymology of words cannot be well understood, without a knowlege of the original languages of which ours is composed.
But a very accurate knowlege of the meaning of words and of the true construction of sentences, may be obtained by the help of Dictionaries and good English writers; and this is all that is necessary in the common occupations of life.
But suppose there is some advantage to be derived from an acquaintance with the dead languages, will this compensate for the loss of five or perhaps seven years of valuable time?
Life is short, and every hour should be employed to good purposes. If there are no studies of more consequence to boys, than those of Jtemmène Au Vent - Louise Attaque - Louise Attaque and Greek, let these languages employ their time; for idleness is the bane of youth.
This absurdity is the subject of common complaint; men see and feel the impropriety of the usual practice; and yet no arguments that have hitherto been used, have been sufficient to change the system; or to place an English school on a footing with a Latin one, in point of reputation. It is not my wish to discountenance totally the study of the dead languages. On the other hand I should urge a more close attention to them, among young men who are designed for the learned professions.
The poets, the orators, the philosophers and the historians of Greece and Rome, furnish the most excellent models of Stile, and the richest treasures of Science. The slight attention given to a few of these authors, in our usual course of Education, is rather calculated to make pedants than scholars; and the time employed in gaining superficial knowlege is really wasted. Merchants often have occasion for a knowlege of some foreign living language, as, the French, the Italian, the Spanish, or the German; but men, whose business is wholly domestic, have little or no use for any language but their own; much less, for languages known only in books.
There is one very necessary use of the Latin language, which will always prevent it from falling into [pg ] neglect; which is, that it serves as a common interpreter among the learned of all nations and ages. But the high estimation in which the learned languages have been held, has discouraged a due attention to our own. People find themselves able without much study to write and speak the English intelligibly, and thus have been led to think rules of no utility.
This opinion has produced various and arbitrary practices, in the use of the language, even among men of the most information and accuracy; and this diversity has produced another opinion, both false and injurious to the language, that there are no rules or principles on which the pronunciation and construction can be settled. This neglect is so general, that there is scarcely an institution Hiding Out - Various - Punkalicious Volumes One And Two be found in the Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It.where the English tongue is taught regularly, from its elements to its true and elegant construction, in prose and verse.
Perhaps in most schools, boys are taught the definition of the parts of speech, and a few hard names which they do not understand, and which the teacher seldom attempts to explain; this is called learning grammar.
This practice of learning questions and answers without acquiring any ideas, has given rise to a common remark, that grammar is a dry study ; and so is every other study which is prosecuted without improving the head or the heart. The study of geography is equally dry, when the subject is not understood. But when grammar is taught by the help of visible objects; when children perceive that differences of words arise from differences in things, which they may learn at a very early period of life, the study becomes entertaining, as well as improving.
In general, when a study of any kind is tiresome to a person, it is a presumptive evidence that he does not make any proficiency in knowlege, and this is almost always the fault of the instructor. Nay, there are men, who contend that the best way to become acquainted with English, is to learn Sunto (Reflect) - - - Spreading Light: To Be The Mirror That Reflects It. first. Common sense may justly smile at such an opinion; but experience proves it to be false.
If language is to be taught mechanically, or by rote, it is a matter of little consequence whether the rules are in English, Latin or Greek: But if children are to acquire ideasit is certainly easier to obtain them in a language which they understand, than in a foreign tongue.
The distinctions between the principal parts of speech are founded in nature, and are within the capacity of a school boy. These distinctions should be explained in English, and when well understood, will facilitate the acquisition of other languages.
Without some preparation of this kind, boys will Dancing Tiger - Lorelei Lee - Teddy Toys find a foreign language extremely difficult, and sometimes be discouraged.
We often see young persons of both sexes, puzzling their heads with French, when they can hardly write two sentences of good English. They plod on for some months with much fatigue, little improvement, and less pleasure, and then relinquish the attempt. The principles of any science afford pleasure to the student who comprehends them. In order to render the study of language agreeable, the distinctions between words should be illustrated by the differences in visible objects. Examples should be presented to the senses, which are the inlets of all our knowlege.