Label: Clearview Records - CRVW-53 • Format: Vinyl LP Clear With Red SmokeVinyl LP Clear With Blue SmokeAll Media Compilation, Limited Edition, Numbered Artist Edition • Country: US • Genre: Rock • Style: Punk
Introduced by Columbia init was soon adopted as a new standard by the LP) record industry. Seed - Various - Viva La FreevoluCCión from a few relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound Thats What Its All About - Engelbert Humperdinck - King Of Hearts, it has remained the standard format for record albums.
At the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive and therefore noisy shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, and played at approximately 78 revolutions per minute rpmlimiting the playing time of a inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side. Each side of a inch LP could play for about 22 minutes. Although the LP was suited to classical music because of its extended continuous playing time, it also allowed a collection of ten or more pop music recordings LP be put on a single disc.
The use of the word "album" persisted for the one-disc LP equivalent. The prototype of the LP was the soundtrack disc used by the Vitaphone motion picture sound systemdeveloped by Western Electric and introduced in Unlike their smaller LP descendants, they were made with the same large "standard groove" used by 78s.
Unlike conventional records, the groove started at the inside of the recorded area near the label and proceeded outward toward the edge. Like 78s, early soundtrack discs were pressed in an abrasive shellac compound and played with a single-use steel needle held in a massive electromagnetic pickup with a tracking force of five ounces 1.
By mid, all motion picture studios were recording on optical soundtracks LP, but sets of soundtrack discs, mastered by dubbing from the optical tracks and scaled down to 12 inches to cut costs, were made as late as for distribution to theaters still equipped with disc-only sound projectors.
The desirability of longer continuous playing time soon led to the adoption of the Vitaphone soundtrack disc format. Transcriptions were variously recorded inside out like soundtrack discs in the era of shellac pressings and steel needles, needle wear considerations dictated an inside start for such a long recording or with an outside start.
Longer programs, which required several disc sides, pioneered the system of recording odd-numbered sides inside-out LP) even-numbered sides outside-in LP) that the sound quality would match from the end of one side to the start of the next. Although a pair of turntables was used, to avoid any pauses for disc-flipping, the sides had to be pressed in a hybrid of manual and automatic sequencing, arranged in such a manner that no disc being played had to be turned over to play the next side in the sequence.
Instead of a three-disc set having the 1—2, 3—4 and 5—6 manual sequence, or the 1—6, 2—5 and 3—4 automatic sequence for use with a drop-type mechanical record changer, broadcast sequence would couple the sides as 1—4, 2—5 and 3—6. Some transcriptions were recorded with a vertically modulated "hill and dale" groove. This was found to allow deeper bass because turntable rumble was laterally modulated in early radio station turntables and also an extension of the high-end frequency response.
Neither of these was necessarily a great advantage in practice because of the limitations of AM broadcasting.
Today we can enjoy the benefits of those higher-fidelity recordings, even if the original radio audiences could not. Initially, transcription discs were pressed only in shellac, but by pressings in RCA Victor's vinyl-based "Victrolac" were appearing.
Other plastics were sometimes used. By the late s, vinyl was standard for nearly all kinds of pressed discs except ordinary commercial 78s, which continued to be made of shellac. In the late s, magnetic tape recorders Herumliegen In Der Sunn - W. Ambros* / № 1* - Live Am Donauinselfest (DVD) adopted by the networks to pre-record shows or repeat them for airing in different time zones, but inch vinyl pressings continued to be used into the early s Frightened Of.
- Various - Trim Crusts If Desired non-network distribution of prerecorded programming. Use of the LP's microgroove standard began in the late s, and in the s the discs were reduced to 12 inches, becoming physically indistinguishable from ordinary LPs. Unless the quantity required was very small, pressed discs were a more economical medium for distributing high-quality audio than tape, and CD mastering was, in the early years of that technology, very expensive, so the use of LP-format transcription discs continued into the s.
RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-playing record for home use in September They were to be played with a special "Chromium Orange" chrome-plated steel needle.
The inch discs, mostly used for popular and light classical music, were normally pressed in shellac, but the inch discs, mostly used for "serious" classical music, were normally pressed in Victor's new vinyl-based Victrolac compound, which provided a much quieter playing surface.
They could hold up to 15 minutes per side. Beethoven's Fifth Symphonyperformed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowskiwas the first inch LP issued. The New York Times wrote, "What we were not prepared for was the quality of reproduction Unfortunately LP) Victor, it was downhill from there. The dubs were audibly inferior to the original 78s. Record sales in the US had dropped from a high of Except for a few recordings of background music for funeral parlors, the last of the issued titles had been purged from the company's record catalog by the end of the decade.
The LP of the new product left RCA Victor with a low opinion of the prospects for any sort of long-playing record, influencing product development decisions during the coming decade. CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia's team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side. Research began inwas suspended during World War II, and then resumed in All 12 inch pressings were of grams vinyl.
Columbia may have planned for the Bach album ML to be the first since the releases came in alphabetical order by composer. There is also a CD of this album on the market. When the LP was introduced inthe 78 was the conventional format for phonograph records. By78s still accounted for slightly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales.
Canada and the UK continued production intowhile India, the Philippines, and South Africa produced 78s untilwith the last holdout, Argentina, continuing until The popularity of the LP ushered in the " Album Era " of English-language popular music, beginning in the s, as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums. But for the '70s it will remain the basic musical Oh Boy - The Lillingtons - Technically More Round (Vinyl, and that's OK with me.
Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the late s with the advent of Compact Cassettesand later compact discsthe LP survives as a format to the present day. Vinyl LP records enjoyed a resurgence in the early s. It was introduced by RCA Victor in To compete with the LP, boxed albums of 45s were issued, along with EP Extended Play 45s, which squeezed two or Oh Boy - The Lillingtons - Technically More Round (Vinyl three selections onto each side.
Despite these efforts, the 45 succeeded only in replacing the 78 as the format for singles. This series was labeled AP-1 through about AP, pressed on grainless red vinyl. Today AP-1 through AP-5 are very scarce. By very tightly packing LP) fine groove, a playing time of 17 minutes per side was achieved.
Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a Piada Suja.Rio De Janeiro - Hocnis / Imminent Attack / Puppets - Three Ways To Hell challenge LP) the LP in the s, but the higher LP) of pre-recorded tapes was one of several factors Oh Boy - The Lillingtons - Technically More Round (Vinyl confined tape to a niche market.
Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids. However, the LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the s, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems.
Bycassettes were outselling LPs in the US. The Compact Disc CD was introduced in State Street State Of Mind - Better Than Ezra - Artifakt It offered a recording that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches. At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles.
But prices came down, and by CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as " vinyl ". Since the late s there has been a renewed interest in vinyl . Soundtracks — played on records synchronized to movie projectors in theatres — could not fit onto the mere 5 minutes per side that 78s offered.
When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of about 23 minutes per side, with inch around It wasn't until "microgroove" was developed by Columbia Records in that Long Players LPs reached their maximum playtime that has continued to modern times. Economics and tastes initially determined which kind of music was available on each format. Recording company executives believed upscale classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient.
As a result, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. Popular music continued to appear only on inch records. Their beliefs were wrong. By the mids, the inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as Mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative.
InColumbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a LP) minute playing time. A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit.
But these records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed Oh Boy - The Lillingtons - Technically More Round (Vinyl a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record.
It also resulted in a much quieter sound. Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves. Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence.
A two-record set had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention.
Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, Oh Boy - The Lillingtons - Technically More Round (Vinyl, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual track. Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches.
Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage. A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it can make a record physically unplayable. A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it.
A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps Stuck On You - Lionel Richie - Cant Slow Down to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loopplaying the same bit over and over until someone stops it.
This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition. Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burnwhich results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of Various - !K7150 track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.
When this is done repeatedly, the affected LP) of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable at the start of the track.
The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature LP some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality.
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