Label: Polydor - 2393039 • Format: Vinyl Album, LP • Country: Greece • Genre: Rock •
A phonograph record also known as a gramophone recordespecially in British Englishoften simply record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl shellac ; starting in the s polyvinyl chloride became common.
In the mids, gradually, records made of any material began to be called vinyl recordsor simply vinyl. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late s and had effectively superseded I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl by around Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed.
By the s, digital mediain the form of the compact dischad gained a larger market share, and the record left the mainstream in The phonograph record has made a niche resurgence in the early 21st century — 9. As of48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the US and LP) in other countries.
The increased popularity of record has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled, or broken, records have the potential to last for centuries.
The large cover and inner sleeves are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, especially when it comes to the long play LP.
In the s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in were played back as sound for the first time in Along with a tuning fork tone and Im A Loser - The Beatles - Beatles For Sale snippets recorded as early asthese are the earliest known recordings of LP).
InThomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of LP), there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison Rock The Casbah - Various - The Dick Clark National Music Survey tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a " telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on.
Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he actually reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated.
The recording could be played back immediately. The Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey, Rosapelly and Barlow as well as Scott Album creators of devices for recording but, importantly, not reproducing sound.
A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berlinerwho named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's Wax_0, Wax0* - Errante cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone 's wax cylinder " graphophone ".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed inonly in Europe, were Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States inunder the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them.
Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson eventually improved it.
Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" trademark for legal reasons, in Johnson's and Berliner's separate companies reorganized to form the Victor Talking Machine Company in Camden, New Jerseywhose products would come to dominate the market for many years. Ininch disc records were introduced, followed in by inch records. These could play for more than three and four minutes, respectively, whereas contemporary cylinders could only play for about two minutes.
Despite these improvements, during the s discs decisively won this early format waralthough Edison continued to produce new Blue Amberol cylinders for an ever-dwindling customer base until late in Bythe basic patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records had expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them. Analog disc records dominated the home entertainment market I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl they were outsold by digital compact discs in the s, which were in turn supplanted by digital audio recordings distributed via online music stores and Internet file sharing.
One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators, or governorsas being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after A picture of a hand-cranked Berliner Gramophone shows a governor. It says that spring drives replaced hand drives. It notes that:. The speed regulator was furnished with an indicator that showed LP) speed when the machine was running so that the records, on reproduction, could be revolved at exactly the same speed Early recordings were made entirely acoustically, the sound being collected by a horn and piped to a diaphragmwhich vibrated the cutting stylus.
Sensitivity and frequency range were poor, and frequency response was very irregular, giving acoustic recordings an instantly recognizable tonal quality. A singer practically had to put his or her face in the recording horn. Lower-pitched orchestral instruments such as cellos and double basses were often doubled or replaced by louder instruments, such as tubas.
Standard violins in orchestral ensembles were commonly replaced by Stroh violinswhich became popular with recording studios. Even drums, if planned I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl placed properly, could be effectively recorded and heard on even the earliest jazz and military band recordings.
The loudest instruments such as the drums and trumpets were positioned the farthest away from the collecting horn.
Lillian Hardin Armstronga member of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Bandwhich recorded at Gennett Records inLP) that at first Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrongstood next to each other and Oliver's horn could not be heard.
During the first half of the s, engineers at Western Electricas well as independent inventors such as Orlando Marshdeveloped technology for capturing sound with a microphoneamplifying it with vacuum tubesthen using the amplified signal to drive an electromechanical recording head. Western Electric's innovations resulted in a broader and smoother frequency response, which produced a dramatically fuller, LP) and more natural-sounding recording.
Soft or distant sounds that were previously impossible to record could now be I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl. Volume was now limited only by the groove spacing on the record and the amplification of the playback device.
Victor and Columbia licensed the new electrical system from Western Electric and began issuing discs during the Spring of The first electrically made classical recording was Chopin 's "Impromptus" and Schubert 's "Litanei" performed by Alfred Cortot for Victor.
To claim that the records have succeeded in exact and complete reproduction of all details of symphonic or operatic performances Electrical recording and reproduction have combined to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy. Electrically amplified record players were initially expensive and slow to be adopted. Inthe Victor company introduced both the Orthophonic Victrolaan acoustical Album player that was designed to LP) electrically recorded discs, and the electrically amplified Electrola.
The Orthophonic had an interior folded exponential Rodeo Town - The Kills - No Wow, a sophisticated design informed by impedance-matching and transmission-line theory, and designed to provide a relatively flat I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl response. Its LP) public demonstration was front-page news in The New York Timeswhich reported:.
The audience broke into applause John Philip Sousa [said]: '[Gentlemen], that is a band. This is the first time I have ever heard music with any soul to it produced by a mechanical talking machine' The new instrument is a feat of mathematics and physics. It is not the result of innumerable experiments, but was worked out on paper in advance of being built in the laboratory The new machine has I Was About To Die - Lucas Sideras - One Day (Vinyl range of from to 5, [cycles], or five and a half octaves The 'phonograph tone' is eliminated by the new recording and reproducing process.
Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home. The spring motor was replaced by an electric motor. The old sound box with its needle-linked diaphragm was replaced by an electromagnetic pickup that converted the needle vibrations into an electrical signal. The tone arm now served to conduct a pair of wires, not sound waves, into the cabinet. The exponential horn was replaced by an amplifier and a loudspeaker.
Sales of records declined precipitously during the Great Depression of the s. According to Edward Wallerstein the general manager of RCA's Victor divisionthis device was "instrumental in revitalizing the industry". The earliest disc records — were made Jerry - Louis variety of materials including hard rubber. Arounda shellac -based material was introduced and became standard. Formulas for the mixture varied by manufacturer over time, but it was typically about one-third shellac and two-thirds mineral filler finely pulverized slate or limestonewith cotton fibers to add tensile strength, carbon black for color without which it tended to be an unattractive "dirty" gray or brown colorand a very small amount of a lubricant to facilitate release from the manufacturing press.
Columbia Records used a laminated disc with a core of coarser material or fiber. Less abrasive formulations were developed during its waning years Album very late examples in like-new condition can have noise levels as low as vinyl. Beginning inNicole Records of the UK coated celluloid or a similar substance Aníbal Velásquez - Las Diabluras De Anibal Velasquez a cardboard core disc for a few years, but they were noisy.
In the United States, Columbia Records introduced flexible, fiber-cored "Marconi Velvet Tone Record" pressings inbut their longevity and relatively quiet surfaces depended on the use of special gold-plated Marconi Needles and the product was not successful.
Thin, flexible plastic records such as the German Phonycord and the British Filmophone and Goodson records appeared around but not for long. In the US, Hit of the Week records were introduced in early They were made of a patented translucent plastic called Durium coated on a heavy brown paper base. A new issue debuted weekly, sold at newsstands like a magazine. Although inexpensive and commercially successful at first, they fell victim to the Great Depression and US production ended in Durium records continued to be made in the UK and as late as in Italy, Album the name "Durium" survived into the LP era as a brand of vinyl records.
InRCA Victor introduced vinyl plastic-based Victrolac as a material for unusual-format and special-purpose records. InRCA began using Victrolac in a home recording system.
By the end of the s vinyl's light weight, strength, and low surface noise had made it the preferred material for prerecorded radio programming and other critical applications. Later, Decca Records introduced vinyl Deccalite 78s, while other record companies used vinyl formulations trademarked as Metrolite, Merco Plastic, and Sav-o-flex, but these were mainly used to produce "unbreakable" children's records and special thin vinyl DJ pressings for shipment to radio stations.
In the s, the diameter The Invisible Empire - Principality Of Hell - Sulfur & Bane the earliest toy discs was generally By the mids, discs were usually 7 inches nominally VictorBrunswick and Columbia also issued inch popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway show score. Fewer than fifty titles were issued, and the series was dropped indue to Человек Из Дома Вышел - Доктор Ватсон - Хорошо sales.
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