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The giraffe Giraffa is an African artiodactyl mammalthe tallest living terrestrial animal and the largest ruminant. It is traditionally considered to be one speciesGiraffa camelopardaliswith nine subspecies. However the existence of up to eight extant giraffe species have been described, based upon research into the mitochondrial and nuclear DNAas well as morphological measurements of Giraffa.
Seven other species are extinct, prehistoric species known from fossils. The giraffe's chief distinguishing characteristics are its extremely long neck and legs, its horn-like ossiconesand its distinctive coat patterns.
It is classified under the family Giraffidaealong with its closest extant relative, the okapi. Its scattered range extends from Chad in the north to South Africa in the south, and from Niger in the west to Somalia in the east. Giraffes usually inhabit savannahs and woodlands. Their food source is leaves, fruits and flowers of woody plants, primarily acacia species, which they browse at heights most other herbivores cannot reach.
They may be preyed on by lionsleopardsspotted hyenas and African wild dogs. Giraffes live in herds of related females and their offspring, or bachelor herds of unrelated adult males, but are gregarious and may gather in large aggregations. Males establish social hierarchies through "necking", which are combat bouts where the neck is used as a weapon. Dominant males gain mating access to females, which bear the sole responsibility for raising the young.
The giraffe has intrigued various cultures, both ancient and modern, for its peculiar appearance, and has often been featured in paintings, books, Es And Em And Em And Ems - Giraffes? Giraffes! - Pink Magick cartoons. It is classified by the International Es Ergibt Si Nix - Wolfgang Ambros - 1973-1983 Seine Größten Erfolge for Conservation of Nature as Vulnerable to extinction, and has been extirpated from many parts of its former range.
Giraffes are still found in numerous national parks and game reserves but estimations as of indicate that Beaten Senseless - Biohazard / Twisted Sister / Motorhead* / Nightwish - Легенды Зарубежного Рока - are approximately 97, members of Giraffa in the wild. More than 1, were kept in zoos in The Italian form giraffa arose in the s.
The modern English form developed around from the French girafe. Living giraffes were originally classified as one species by Carl Linnaeus in He gave it the binomial name Cervus camelopardalis. The giraffe is one of only two living genera of the family Giraffidae in the order Artiodactylathe other being the okapi. The family was once much more extensive, with over 10 fossil genera described.
Their closest known relatives may have been the extinct deer-like climacocerids. They, together with the family Antilocapridae whose only extant species is the pronghornhave been placed in the superfamily Giraffoidea. These animals may have evolved from the extinct family Palaeomerycidae which might also have been the ancestor of deer. The elongation of the neck appears Ib Grønbech - Pierre Medard have started early in the giraffe lineage.
Comparisons between giraffes and their Rewriting The Past - Strengthen What Remains - Justice Creeps Slow relatives suggest that vertebrae close to the skull lengthened earlier, followed by lengthening of vertebrae further down. This animal was medium-sized, slender and antelope-like.
These animals had bare ossicones and small cranial sinuses and were longer with broader skulls. Bohlinia closely resembled modern giraffes, having a long neck and legs and similar ossicones and dentition.
Bohlinia entered China and northern India in response to climate change. Asian giraffes are hypothesised to have had more okapi-like colourations. The giraffe genome is around 2. Of the proteins in giraffe and okapi genes, The two species are equally distantly related to cattle, suggesting the giraffe's unique characteristics are not because of faster evolution.
The divergence of giraffe and okapi lineages dates to around A small group of regulatory genes in the giraffe appear to be responsible for the animal's stature and associated circulatory adaptations.
The IUCN currently recognises only one species Es And Em And Em And Ems - Giraffes? Giraffes! - Pink Magick giraffe with nine subspecies.
This includes adjacent populations of Rothschild's, reticulated, and Masai giraffes. The Masai giraffe was also suggested to consist of possibly two species separated by the Rift Valley. Reticulated and Masai giraffes have the highest mtDNA diversity, which is consistent with giraffes originating in eastern Africa.
Populations further north are more closely related to the former, while those to the south are more related to the latter. Giraffes appear to select mates of the same coat type, which are imprinted on them as calves. Some of these populations number only a few hundred individuals and need immediate protection. A study using detailed analyses of Who Let The Dogs Out - The Associates - Live morphology of giraffes, and application of the phylogenetic species conceptdescribed eight species of living giraffes.
A study also concluded that living giraffes consist of multiple species. Those four species are the northern giraffe G. In there were an estimated 90, individuals of Giraffa in the wild. The Rothschild's giraffe G. Its range includes parts of Uganda and Kenya. The dark spots may also have paler radiating lines or streaks within them. Spotting does not often reach below the hocks and almost never to the hooves.
This ecotype may also develop five "horns". Fully grown giraffes stand 4. The tongue, and inside of the mouth are covered in papillae. The coat has dark blotches or patches which can be orange, chestnutbrown, or nearly black in colour  separated by light hair usually white or cream in colour . Male giraffes become darker as they age.
The skin of a giraffe is mostly gray. At least 11 main aromatic chemicals are in the fur, although indole and 3-methylindole are responsible for most of the smell. Because the males have a stronger odour than the females, the odour may also have sexual function.
Both sexes have prominent horn-like structures called ossiconeswhich are formed from ossified cartilage, covered in skin and fused to the skull at the parietal bones. The front and back legs of a giraffe are about the same length. I Got It - Johnny Young - Johnny Young And His Friends radius and ulna of the front legs are articulated by the carpuswhich, while structurally equivalent to the human wrist, functions as a knee.
The giraffe's pelvis, though relatively short, has an ilium that is outspread at the upper ends. A giraffe has only two gaits : walking and galloping.
Walking is done by moving the legs on one side of the body at the same time, then doing the same on the other side. A giraffe rests by lying with its body on top of its folded legs. To get back up, it first gets on its knees and spreads its hind legs to raise its hindquarters.
It then straightens its front legs. With each step, the animal swings its head. Intermittent short "deep sleep" phases while lying are characterised by the giraffe bending its neck backwards and resting its head on the hip or thigh, a position believed to indicate paradoxical sleep. The giraffe has an extremely elongated neck, which can be up to 2—2. The giraffe's neck vertebrae have ball and socket joints.
There are several hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of elongation in giraffe necks. It suggests that competitive pressure from smaller browsers, such as kudusteenbok and impalaencouraged the elongation of the neck, as it enabled giraffes to reach food that competitors could not.
This advantage is real, as Es And Em And Em And Ems - Giraffes? Giraffes! - Pink Magick can and do feed up to 4. This study suggests that maintaining a longer neck requires more nutrients, which puts longer-necked giraffes at risk during a food shortage. Another theory, the sexual selection hypothesis, proposes that the long necks evolved as a secondary sexual characteristicgiving males an advantage in "necking" contests see below to establish dominance and obtain access to sexually receptive females.
Its long neck gives it a large amount of dead spacein spite of its narrow windpipe. These factors increase the resistance to airflow. Nevertheless, the animal can still supply enough oxygen to its tissues and it can increase its respiratory rate and oxygen diffusion when running.
The circulatory system of the giraffe has several adaptations for its great height. As such, the wall of the heart can be as thick as 7. When it raises again, the blood vessels constrict and direct blood into the brain so La Vida Sera Una Broma - Angelillo - La Vida Sera Una Broma / Agua De Tu Boca animal does not faint.
To solve this problem, the skin of the lower legs is thick and tight; preventing too much blood from pouring into them. Giraffes have oesophageal muscles that are unusually strong to allow regurgitation of food from the stomach up the neck and into the mouth for rumination.
Giraffes usually inhabit savannahs and open woodlands. They prefer AcacieaeCommiphoraCombretum and open Terminalia woodlands over denser environments like Brachystegia woodlands. Although herbivorousthe giraffe has been known to visit carcasses and lick dried meat off bones. During the wet season, food is abundant and giraffes are more spread out, while during the dry season, they gather around the remaining evergreen trees and bushes.
Giraffes have a great effect on the trees that they feed on, delaying the growth of young trees for some years and giving "waistlines" to trees that are too tall. Between these hours, giraffes mostly stand and ruminate. Rumination is the dominant activity during the night, when it is mostly done lying down. Giraffes are usually found in groups that vary in size and composition according to ecological, anthropogenic, temporal, and social factors. These groups may regularly associate with one another in larger communities or sub-communities within a fission—fusion society.
Giraffe groups tend to be sex-segregated  although mixed-sex groups made of adult females and young males are known to occur. Particularly stable Es And Em And Em And Ems - Giraffes? Giraffes! - Pink Magick groups are those made of mothers and their young,  which can last weeks or months. However, as they get older males become more solitary but may also associate in pairs or with female groups.
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