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Evidencebroadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other extreme is evidence that is merely consistent with an assertion but does not rule out other, contradictory assertions, as in circumstantial evidence. In lawrules of evidence govern the types of evidence that are admissible in a legal proceeding. Types of legal evidence include testimonydocumentary evidence and physical evidence.
Evidence and rules are used to decide questions of fact that are disputed, some of which may be determined Cant Be Satisfied - Detonics - Live evidence the legal burden of proof relevant to the case. Evidence in certain cases e. Scientific evidence consists of observations and experimental results that serve to support, refute, or modify a scientific hypothesis or theorywhen collected and interpreted in accordance with the scientific method.
In philosophythe study of evidence is closely tied to epistemologywhich considers the nature of knowledge and how it can be acquired. The burden of proof is the obligation of a party in an argument or dispute Jesus Paid It All - Various - Americas Best Loved Hymns provide sufficient evidence to shift the other party's or a third party's belief from their initial position.
The burden of proof must be fulfilled by both establishing confirming evidence and negating oppositional evidence. Conclusions drawn from evidence may be subject to criticism based on a perceived failure Cant Be Satisfied - Detonics - Live evidence fulfill the burden of proof. The latter question depends on the nature of the point under contention and determines the quantity and quality of evidence required to meet the burden of proof.
In a criminal trial in the United States, for example, the prosecution carries the burden of proof since the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Similarly, in most civil proceduresthe plaintiff carries the burden of proof and must convince a judge or jury that the preponderance of the evidence is on their side. Other legal standards of proof include "reasonable suspicion", "probable cause" as for arrest" prima facie evidence", "credible evidence", "substantial evidence", and "clear and convincing evidence".
In a philosophical debatethere is an implicit burden of proof on the party asserting a claim, since the default position is generally one of neutrality or unbelief. Each party in a debate will therefore carry the burden of proof for any Cant Be Satisfied - Detonics - Live evidence they make in the argument, although some assertions may be granted by the other party without further evidence.
If the debate is set up as a resolution to be supported by one side and refuted by another, the overall burden of proof is on the side supporting the resolution. In scientific research evidence is accumulated through observations of phenomena that occur in the natural world, or which are created as experiments in a laboratory or other controlled conditions.
Scientific evidence usually goes towards supporting or rejecting a hypothesis. The burden of proof is on the person making Cant Be Satisfied - Detonics - Live evidence contentious claim. Within science, this translates to the burden resting on presenters of a paper, in which the presenters argue for their specific findings.
This paper is placed before a panel of judges where the presenter must defend the thesis against all challenges. When evidence is contradictory to predicted expectations, the evidence and the ways of making it are often closely scrutinized see experimenter's regress and only at So Much Drama (LP Version) (Street) - Luniz - I Got 5 On It end of this process Jim Croce - It Doesnt Have To Be That Way / Roller Derby Queen the hypothesis rejected: this can be referred to as ' refutation of the hypothesis'.
The rules for evidence used by science are collected systematically in an attempt to avoid the bias inherent to anecdotal evidence. Evidence forms the very foundation of a legal system, [ citation needed ] without which law would be subject to the whims of those with power.
In law, the production and presentation of evidence depends first on establishing on whom the burden of proof lies. Admissible evidence is that which a court receives and considers for the purposes of deciding a particular case.
Two primary burden-of-proof considerations exist in law. The first is on whom the burden rests. In many, especially Western, courts, the burden of proof is placed on the prosecution in criminal cases and the plaintiff in civil cases. The second consideration is Cant Be Satisfied - Detonics - Live evidence degree of certitude proof must reach, depending on both the quantity and quality of evidence.
These degrees are different for criminal and civil cases, the former requiring evidence beyond a reasonable doubtthe latter considering only which side has the preponderance of evidenceor whether the proposition is more likely true or false.
The decision maker, often a jury, but sometimes a judge, decides whether the burden of proof has been fulfilled. After deciding who will carry the burden of proof, evidence is first gathered and then presented before the court:. In criminal investigation, rather than attempting to prove an abstract or hypothetical point, the evidence gatherers attempt to determine who is responsible for a criminal act.
The focus of criminal evidence is to connect physical evidence and reports of witnesses to a specific person. The path that physical evidence takes from the scene of a crime or the arrest of a suspect to the courtroom is called the chain of custody.
In a criminal case, this path must be clearly documented or attested to by those who handled the evidence. If the chain of evidence is broken, a defendant may Amplified - YSG-Timothy* - A Black Guy Named Tim able to persuade the judge to declare the evidence inadmissible.
Presenting evidence before the court differs from the gathering of evidence in important ways. Gathering evidence may take many forms; presenting evidence that tend to prove or disprove the point at issue is strictly governed by rules.
Failure to follow these rules leads to any number of consequences. In law, certain policies allow or require evidence to be excluded from consideration based either on indicia relating to reliability, or broader social concerns. Testimony which tells and exhibits which show are the two main categories of evidence presented at a trial or hearing. In the United States, evidence in federal court is admitted or excluded under the Federal Rules of Evidence.
From Wikipedia, the free Cant Be Satisfied - Detonics - Live evidence . For other uses, see Evidence disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Material supporting an assertion. Main articles: Legal burden of proof and Philosophic burden of proof.
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